In drug and xenobiotic metabolism the metabolites are formed instantaneously in the electrochemical cell mimicking the enzymatic biotransformation of the Cytochrome P450 reactions that usually take place in the liver (Phase I reaction). Hereby Electrochemistry becomes a truly biomimetic tool for enzymatic REDOX reactions.
Significant time and cost saving are possible compared to days or weeks using the traditional in-vitro (e.g., microsomes) and/or in-vivo methods (e.g., rodents, human, etc.). No cumbersome isolation form biological matrices (e.g., urine, plasma) is required and there is no longer risk of adsorption/binding to cells or other biological constituents. By adding glutathione after the electrochemical cell, adduct formation (phase II reaction) can be simulated and detected on-line by MS. Further advantages are: generation of intermediates and short-lived, unstable metabolites, no test animals (rodents), no biohazard risk (human liver microsomes).
Phase I metabolism of Tetrazepam
In only a few minutes all major metabolites of Tetrazepam could be generated and identified by on-line EC/LC/MS. Substantial time savings result using ROXY EC for biomimetic oxidation compared to microsomal incubation followed by metabolite extraction or the even more daunting and cumbersome isolation from urine. Ref: A. Baumann, J of Chrom. A, 1216 (2009) 3192
For more information about Drug/Xenobiotic Metabolism see tab above with References or contact Antec at email@example.com.
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Linyan Zhu, Beatrix Santiago-Schübel, Hongxia Xiao, Henner Hollert, Stephan Kueppers; Water Research, 102, 1 October 2016, Pages 52–62
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Linyan Zhu, Beatrix Santiago-Schübel, Hongxia Xiao, Björn Thiele, Zhiliang Zhu, Yanling Qiu, Henner Hollert, Stephan Küppers; Chemosphere, 131, July 2015, Pages 34–40
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Helene Faber, Holger Lutze, Pablo Lores Lareo, Lisa Frensemeier, Martin Vogel, Torsten C. Schmidt, Uwe Karst; Journal of Chromatography A, 1343, 23 May 2014, Pages 152–159
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Chen L, Hofmann D, Klumpp E, Xiang X, Chen Y, Küppers S.; Chemosphere. 2012 Nov;89(11):1376-83. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.105. Epub 2012 Jul 21.
22525874 - Identification and quantification of potential metabolites of Gd-based contrast agents by electrochemistry/separations/mass spectrometry.
Telgmann L, Faber H, Jahn S, Melles D, Simon H, Sperling M, Karst U.; J Chromatogr A. 2012 Jun 1;1240:147-55. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.03.088. Epub 2012 Apr 3.
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Melles D, Vielhaber T, Baumann A, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Apr;403(2):377-84. doi: 10.1007/s00216-011-5673-0. Epub 2012 Jan 8.
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Hoffmann T, Hofmann D, Klumpp E, Küppers S.; Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Feb;399(5):1859-68. doi: 10.1007/s00216-010-4575-x. Epub 2010 Dec 19.
24300003 - Simulation of metabolic processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using electrochemistry/mass spectrometry
Tina Wigger, Lars Buter, Philipp Strohmide and Uwe Karst; ASMS 2014 poster
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Christophorus et al.; poster
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