Drug - Protein Binding


Electrochemistry can be successfully applied for Drug – Protein Binding studies and the formation of adducts. Therefore, the drug gets in a 1st reaction (Phase I) activated by passing through the electrochemical cell and in a 2nd follow-up reaction (Phase II) the protein is added to form the Drug –Protein adduct prior to MS detection. For a few samples the ROXY EC system consisting of the ROXY potentiostat and the dual syringe infusion pump is the ideal instrument to conduct such studies in only a few minutes. For numerous samples, the use of the ROXY EC/LC system is recommended to allow fully automated Drug – Protein Binding studies.


Schematics ROXY EC system consisting of: dual syringe infusion pump (1 x drug, 1 x protein), ReactorCell, and reaction coil for Phase I and II reactions.

Phase I: drug gets infused and activated (oxidized) in ReactorCell.

Phase II: protein is added after the ReactorCell to form the Drug – Protein adduct detected by MS



Drug–Protein adduct formation  of Amodiaquine withß-Lactalbumin

Mass spectra of:
ß-Lactalbumin and AQQI–ß-Lactalbumin adduct using ROXY EC.





Application Notes

Application Notebook

23286982 - In chemico evaluation of skin metabolism: Investigation of eugenol and isoeugenol by electrochemistry coupled to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Melles D, Vielhaber T, Baumann A, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Jan 15;913-914:106-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.12.004. Epub 2012 Dec 11.

22592985 - Electrochemistry/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to demonstrate irreversible binding of the skin allergen p-phenylenediamine to proteins.
Jahn S, Faber H, Zazzeroni R, Karst U.; Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012 Jun 30;26(12):1415-25. doi: 10.1002/rcm.6247.

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